《GMAT加减法思维》连载13
来源: | 作者:passion | 发布时间: 2016-10-10 | 15766 次浏览 | 分享到:

所以从判断方法来说,有以下几种方式。

 

<信号词判断


 (a) 因为所以

下表中,当出现因为A,所以B“的表达时,比较明显可以判断出A是证,B是论。

 (b)  观点词

conclude/conclusion, judge/judgment,argue/argument, state/statement, hypothesis, opinion, guess, view,propose/proposal, plan, strategy, theory, position, point, agree/agreement,proponent, advocate, favor, concur, approve/approval, contend, justify, assent,endorse.

 

<>主观色彩浓

 

主观色彩也有两种判断方式,第一种依然是从词语表达本身传递过来的,我们叫做主观语气。除了上面给出的信号词以外,还可以补充以下三条。

 

(c) 情态动词

will, would, might, may, could, can, should,must,

 

(d) 判断类副词

probably, possibly, likely, definitely,certainly, maybe, perhaps, presumably,

 

(e) 情感色彩词

这里就不一一列举了,凡是带有正面、负面倾向性,或者褒贬色彩的动词,形容词,甚至名词,在使用时会产生鲜明的主观意味。

 

第二种我们叫做内容主观。比如:

 

[2.3]

王老师是个好老师。(好坏该如何量化?)

GMAT考试很难。(难易的标准是什么?)

英语是有用的语言。(对谁,对干什么有用?)

商科学习最有意思了。(你觉得有意思,别人呢?)

 

它们的普遍特点是:难以量化,难以归类,缺少标准,因人而异。

 

<排除证


前面说过,用来支持论点的理由部分,我们称之为。事实上,证也有以下三类。

 

如果能快速通过以上特征确定的句子,那么至少也给论点句的确立减少了干扰,缩小了范围。

 

<四> 通过推理方向

 

推理方向感觉的培养,是批判性思维的练习达到一定程度以后,比较高级的境界。这个过程是一种水到渠成的自然思维习惯,无需套用表面的信号词特征,或诸如此类的初级技巧。

 

也就是说,在纷乱繁杂的论证信息中,可以一眼就看出论点句的存在,它与文章围绕的论题休戚相关,它是其他所有句子的推理指向,于一众凡俗粉黛中脱颖而出。

 

总结一下,我们可以把论点句的确定展现为下面的表格


 

 

本节练习题

 

判断下列每一段文字的论点句。

 

(1) A companyis considering changing its policy concerning daily working hours. Currently,this company requires all employees to arrive at work at 8 a.m. The proposedpolicy would permit each employee to decide when to arrive—from as early as 6a.m. to as late as 11 a.m.

 

(2) Cable-television spokesperson: Subscriptions to cable television are a bargainin comparison to "free" television. Remember that "free"television is not really free. It is consumers, in the end, who pay for thecostly advertising that supports "free" television.

 

(3) In the United States, of the people who moved from one state to another whenthey retired, the percentage who retired to Florida has decreased by threepercentage points over the past ten years. Since many local businesses inFlorida cater to retirees, these declines are likely to have a noticeablynegative economic effect on these businesses and therefore on the economy ofFlorida.

 

(4)Hotco oil burners, designed to be used in asphalt plants, are so efficient thatHotco will sell one to the Clifton Asphalt plant for no payment other than thecost savings between the total amount the asphalt plant actually paid for oilusing its former burner during the last two years and the total amount it willpay for oil using the Hotco burner during the next two years. On installation,the plant will make an estimated payment, which will be adjusted after twoyears to equal the actual cost savings.

 



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